Harmer (1983) states that listening as a different skill to writing. In listening, the listener cannot see what he was listening, but could only listen.
Listening ability is one of skill in English language lessons to mater the skills of students with three others, namely reading, writing, and listening. From experience and discussion with several students, many who find it difficult to reach the expected competent in this skills. Often, in practice, teachers are less able to teach listening that is easily understod by students. This resulted in many students who failed the exam and had to repeat listening.
Therefore, a teacher who is the facilitator should have the skills to be able to make students feel easy in the study of listening. There are several techniques that can be done by teachers when teaching listening in the classroom, including :
- Filling the Gap
This technique can be done by way of emptying a few words in a paragraph or dialogue.Ask students to listen to text spoken by the teacher or the tape and fill that empty words are.
- Picture Guessing
This technique can be done by guessing the image according to an oral text that was read or heard.
- Finding Mistakes
The technique is done by asking and listening to spoken text underlined words that do not correspond with the spoken text.
- Choosing Menu
The technique is done by asking students to select the menu corresponding to the spoken text.
- Rearranging Sentences / Paragraph
The technique is done by giving the sentence or paragraph hiatus to students. Students are asked to listen to the spoken text and make sentences / paragraphs to be true.
The technique is done by breaking the conversation into two parts. The first part contains half a sentence and the second half of the sentence. Then students are asked to listen to the text of the conversation and then match the first and second corresponding text conversation.
Listening is the ability to understand what others say and why they have to said it.
Listening is an active proccess of understanding the text by activating various kinds of knowledge, such as background knowledge (knowledge of the content), grammatical (knowledge of the language), phonological knowledge (knowledge of sounds) and knowledge based on learners experience.
Listening skills have not been given much importance like other aspects of communication skills, but it is true that listening skills play a major role in the success of one’s communication skills. Only a good listener can be a good speaker. Nobody has been loaded or programmed with good speaking skills at the time of birth. A baby starts speaking, only by listening to the words spoken by his family members. So a child first learns to speak his mother tongue and then other languages like English, Spanish, French etc. But the curiosity found in a baby to learn the language does not last very long as he starts to grow up. Slowly a child develops an ego by thinking that he is a good speaker and that he should speak and others should listen to him. However, this simple thing can be so difficult to do unless you are aware of the need of listening. therefore, the things that makes listening skills importance, include :
- Language learning depends on Listening.
- Speaking does not constitute communication by itself unless what is said is comprehended by another person.
- Listening is used far more than any other single language skill in normal daily life
Many deserving candidates lose out on job opportunities because of their vernacular accent.
Can I ‘neutralise’ my accent?
Yes, you can. All you need to do is train yourself to speak English as comfortably and perfectly as you speak your mother tongue.
How do you train yourself? By inculcating certain practices in your daily lifestyle. These will get you closer to sounding like a native English speaker and equip you with a global accent — and you will speak not American or British English, but correct English.
This is the first step to learn any other accent, be it American or British or Australian.
Lisa Mojsin, head trainer, director and founder of the Accurate English Training Company in Los Angeles, offers these tips to help ‘neutralise’ your accent or rather do away with the local twang, as you speak.
1. Observe the mouth movements of those who speak English well and try to imitate them.
When you are watching television, observe the mouth movements of the speakers. Repeat what they are saying, while imitating the intonation and rhythm of their speech.
2. Until you learn the correct intonation and rhythm of English, slow your speech down.
If you speak too quickly, and with the wrong intonation and rhythm, native speakers will have a hard time understanding you.
Don’t worry about your listener getting impatient with your slow speech — it is more important that everything you say be understood.
3. Listen to the ‘music’ of English.
Do not use the ‘music’ of your native language when you speak English. Each language has its own way of ‘singing’.
4. Use the dictionary.
Try and familiarise yourself with the phonetic symbols of your dictionary. Look up the correct pronunciation of words that are hard for you to say.
5. Make a list of frequently used words that you find difficult to pronounce and ask someone who speaks the language well to pronounce them for you.
Record these words, listen to them and practice saying them. Listen and read at the same time.
6. Buy books on tape.
Record yourself reading some sections of the book. Compare the sound of your English with that of the person reading the book on the tape.
7. Pronounce the ending of each word.
Pay special attention to ‘S’ and ‘ED’ endings. This will help you strengthen the mouth muscles that you use when you speak English.
8. Read aloud in English for 15-20 minutes every day.
Research has shown it takes about three months of daily practice to develop strong mouth muscles for speaking a new language.
9. Record your own voice and listen for pronunciation mistakes.
Many people hate to hear the sound of their voice and avoid listening to themselves speak. However, this is a very important exercise because doing it will help you become conscious of the mistakes you are making.
10. Be patient.
You can change the way you speak but it won’t happen overnight. People often expect instant results and give up too soon. You can change the way you sound if you are willing to put some effort into it.
Various versions of the English language exist. Begin by identifying the category you fall into and start by improving the clarity of your speech.
~ Focus on removing the mother tongue influence and the ‘Indianisms’ that creep into your English conversations.
~ Watch the English news on television channels like Star World, CNN, BBC and English movies on Star Movies and HBO.
~ Listen to and sing English songs. We’d recommend Westlife, Robbie Williams, Abba, Skeeter Davis and Connie Francis among others.
Gerund is the “ing” form of the verb that functions as “noun”.
The usage of grammar are:
- As Subject
- As Object/after certain verb (admit, appreciate, carry on, etc)
- As Complement
- After preposition
- Short Forbidance
- Compound Word (kata majemuk)
- After Verb Phrase
1. As Subject
– Swimming is a healthy sport
– Dancing is my hobby
2. As Object
– I like swimming
3. As Complement
– My hobby is swimming
4. After Preposition
(in, at, on, after, before, etc)
– After watching TV, I went to bed.
5. Short Forbidance
– No smoking !
– No Parking !
6. Compound Word
– Swimming pool
– Fitting room
– Dining room
– Living room
7. After Verb Phrase
– look forward to + verb ing
– be/get used to + verb ing
– be/get accustomed to + verb ing
– object to + verb ing (menolak)
– confess to + verb ing (mengakui)
– it’s no use + verb ing (tak ada gunanya)
Source” My note.
Relative /adjective clause is a clause that modified noun.
• who > subject (person) : I, you, they, we, she, he
• whom > object (person) : me, you, them, us, him, her
• whose > milik (person) my…., your…., their…., our…., his…., her….,
• which > benda/binatang : subject/object
• that > orang/binatang/benda : subject/object (informal)
• of which the > milik (benda/binatang) : its…., their….,
• where > place
• when > time
a. As Subject
1. The boy is kind. He sits under the tree.
The boy who/that sits under the tree is kind.
Note: that (informal)
2. The boy is kind. You helped him yesterday.
The boy whom/that you helped yesterday is kind
Note: whom/that bisa dihilangkan.
3. The boy is kind. You borrowed his car last week.
The boy whose car you borrowed last week is kind
Note: The boy whose car you borrowed last week (subject)
4. The room is hot. We study in it.
The room (which/that) we study in is hot
The room (in which/where) we study is hot
Note: The room (in which/where) we study (subject)
b. As Object/Complement
1. I like the girl. He loves her very much.
I like the girl whom he loves very much.
2. I have a cat. Its fur is nice.
I have a cat of which the fur is nice.
3. I like Harry Potter. It is very popular movie.
I like Harry Potter which is very popular movie.
Source: My note